Transmitting AM radio using a microcontroller

Angus McInnes, 2012-09-05

I have successfully transmitted radio-frequency signals in the AM (MF) broadcast range, using a PC to do the computation and a microcontroller output pin to actually generate the signal.

If you have questions or comments, email me at

Photo of microcontroller transmitter


Inspiration: VGA port radio transmission

It has previously been shown that transmitting radio and TV from an ordinary VGA port is possible [1][2]. These transmitters provided some inspiration for this project.

A modern graphics card can produce 8-bit output (i.e the output can take one of 256 voltage levels) with a sample rate in the hundreds of Msps (i.e the computer can change the voltage level over 108 times per second). This would make it quite a capable radio-frequency signal generator, if not for the fact that the signal is briefly cut off during the vertical blanking interval between one frame and the next.

Some time ago, I tried using a VGA port for transmitting AM radio, but I wasn't happy with the audible distortion the vertical blanking produced. Maybe vertical blanking could be avoided with graphics driver hacks, but I haven't looked into that possibility in detail.

Using a microcontroller instead

In this project I transmit using a microcontroller I/O pin instead. The microcontroller output is, in some respects, not as capable as the VGA output. It has a significantly lower maximum sample rate and a significantly lower bit depth. The bit depth is 1 bit, as the output can only take two voltage levels, "high" 5V and "low" 0V. But the microcontroller does have the advantage that it can transmit continuously.

I want to transmit AM radio in the MF broadcast band, which is above 500kHz. To produce a 500kHz signal, a sample rate of greater than 1Msps is desired. It's not strictly necessary; I could possibly use a lower sample rate and receive a harmonic of the transmitted signal, like Bellard's TV transmitter does. But I haven't tried that.


The microcontroller board I'm using is the Teensy 2.0. The microcontroller on this board is an Atmel AVR (ATMEGA32U4), which supports full-speed USB 1.1 (12Mbps) and has a maximum clock rate of 16MHz.

At a sample rate greater than 1Msps, there are less than 16 microcontroller clock cycles per sample. This isn't enough time to do any computation, so the microcontroller simply receives data over USB from my netbook and outputs it.

There's no other nontrivial hardware required. Besides the Teensy and the PC, there's a USB cable, a breadboard, and a wire to serve as the antenna (connected to pin D3 on the Teensy). Even the breadboard probably isn't strictly necessary. :)


Microcontroller software

The code that runs on the microcontroller is in the device_code directory of my git repository. To compile it you will need to obtain a copy of the LUFA USB library and set LUFA_PATH appropriately in the Makefile.

The microcontroller receives bytes over USB and outputs them to its USART (universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver/transmitter). The USART is configured in SPI master mode, in which it can continuously output 8 bits per byte, one bit at a time, to the antenna pin. It can run as fast as 8Mbps (one bit every two clock cycles).

USB supports a number of different transfer types, including bulk transfers and isochronous transfers. Because the microcontroller can't keep a lot of data in memory ready for output, it's necessary that the USB transfers happen in real time. For this reason, I use isochronous transfers, which enable a regular flow of packets at one packet per millisecond. The maximum packet size supported by the microcontroller is 256 bytes, so I use 250 byte (i.e 2000 bit) packets and configure the USART to run at one bit per 8 clock cycles (2Mbps).

I initially tried using USB bulk transfers rather than isochronous transfers. Bulk transfers allow more packets per millisecond and hence higher sample rate, but don't have the same guarantee of a consistent flow as isochronous transfers do. I found that, at least on my laptop, bulk transfers weren't executed sufficiently close to real-time. When using bulk transfers, the frequent interruptions between transfers were audible in the output.

Host (PC) software

The code that runs on the PC is in the host_code directory of my git repository. It reads audio data from a file, multiplies it by a carrier wave to produce the AM radio data, quantises this to 1 bit, and transfers the data over USB to the microcontroller. In quantising to 1 bit, this code applies noise shaping and dither, described in the next section.

The code expects audio data in a signed 16-bit mono format at 20ksps. This can be produced by ffmpeg with a command similar to the following:

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -ac 1 -ar 20000 -f s16le 20k.bin

The microcontroller expects one packet per millisecond, and the host transmits one packet per millisecond. But the microcontroller's clock is derived from its own quartz crystal, and won't stay perfectly synchronised with the host clock. This means that occasionally the microcontroller might receive a new packet before it's ready for it, or run out of data before the next packet arrives. This problem is known as clock drift. It will cause occasional glitches in the output, and I make no attempt to compensate for it.

Noise shaping

This is the magic signal processing part that enables a 1-bit output to produce a reasonable-sounding signal. Clearly, forcing an analog signal to be one of just two voltage levels introduces quantisation error, and without additional processing that error will become audible distortion. By adding an appropriate amount of dither (random noise) to the signal before quantisation, the distortion can be turned into white noise. And by using a feedback loop with a filter to compensate for each sample's quantisation error in the samples after it, we can magically push that noise out of the useful frequency ranges and into frequency ranges where it isn't a problem.

A more detailed explanation of how noise shaping works is beyond the scope of this discussion. See Minimally Audible Noise Shaping by Lipshitz et al. for theory, and see my code for an implementation.

I'm transmitting with a 567khz carrier, and my AM signal occupies a narrow frequency band around that carrier. But with a 2Msps output any frequency up to 1MHz can be produced, so there's plenty of unused frequency space to push the noise into. This means my transmitter will be outputting a lot of noise as well as the signal I actually want to transmit. If I intended to connect the transmitter to an amplifier, I would first add an analog filter to block the noise.

The filter coefficients that appear in write.c were calculated by a simple Matlab script, filterdesign.m, which is provided in host_code.

Results and conclusion

It actually works. I was able to transmit AM radio from one side of my room to the other on a carrier frequency of 567khz (chosen because it was relatively free of other transmissions here). The signal seems to not be very strong, which doesn't really surprise me, since it's a fraction of the power of a single microcontroller I/O pin and it's going directly to the wire antenna with no amplification. There are also semi-regular faint clicks in the audio, which I'm tentatively blaming on clock drift or irregularities in the USB transmission but haven't really investigated.

Overall I'm pleased with how well it works, but I'm not about to try to use it for broadcasting. :)